Geta was assassinated in his mother's apartments by order of Caracalla, who thereafter ruled as sole augustus. Macrinus managed to escape to Chalcedon but his authority was lost: he was betrayed and executed after a short reign of just 14 months. It is believed he carried on incestuous relations with his three sisters: Julia Livilla, Drusilla and Agrippina the Younger. Upon Nepos's death in 480, Zeno claimed Dalmatia for the East; J. Constans was himself killed in conflict with the rebel augustus Magnentius on January 18, 350. His reign was also notable for the Antonine Constitution (Latin: Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. , Octavian, the grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar, had made himself a central military figure during the chaotic period following Caesar's assassination. A Guide to Writing in History and Classics. 500 BC-300 BC) Procopius, a Cilician maternal cousin of Julian, had been considered a likely heir to his cousin but was never designated as such. He ordered his soldiers to invade Britain to fight the sea god Neptune, but changed his mind at the last minute and had them pick sea shells on the northern end of France instead. Ott, Justin. It was he who first commissioned the Amphitheatrum Flavium (Colosseum); he also built a forum whose centrepiece was a temple to Peace. The revenue from senatorial provinces continued to be sent to the state treasury (aerarium), under the supervision of the Senate. When he became sole emperor upon the death of his father in 180, it was at first seen as a hopeful sign by the people of the Roman Empire. Claudius was neither paranoid like his uncle Tiberius, nor insane like his nephew Caligula, and was therefore able to administer the Empire with reasonable ability. By 384, negotiations were unfruitful and Maximus tried to press the matter by settling succession as only a legitimate emperor could do: proclaiming his own infant son Flavius Victor an augustus. Archaeology, including maritime archaeology, aerial surveys, epigraphic inscriptions on buildings, and Augustan coinage, has also provided valuable evidence about economic, social and military conditions.  Confident that he fixed the disorders plaguing Rome, he abdicated along with his co-augustus, and the Tetrarchy eventually collapsed in the civil wars of the Tetrarchy. Theodosius II reigned for more than forty years.  Civil war engulfed the Roman state in the mid 1st century BC, first between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and finally between Octavian and Mark Antony.  By placing himself under the rule of the eastern emperor Zeno, rather than naming himself or a puppet ruler as emperor, as other Germanic chiefs, had done, Odoacer ended the separate Roman government of the western empire. Ancient Rome, the state centered on the city of Rome from 753 BC through its final eclipse in the 5th century AD. This flowered into the severe and perhaps pathological repercussions following the short-lived rebellion in 89 of Lucius Antonius Saturninus, a governor and commander in Germania Superior.  Julianus, now desperate, attempted negotiation and offered to share the empire with his rival. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marked the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. Three days later, Macrinus was declared augustus. All of the Flavians had rather poor relations with the Senate due to their autocratic rule; however, Domitian was the only one who encountered significant problems. Proclaimed emperor in 193 by his legionaries in Noricum during the political unrest that followed the death of Commodus, he secured sole rule over the empire in 197 after defeating his last rival, Clodius Albinus, at the Battle of Lugdunum. Some of his officers advised caution and to await the arrival of Gratian, others urged an immediate attack and eventually prevailed over Valens, who, eager to have all of the glory for himself, rushed into battle. Odoacer quickly conquered the remaining provinces of Italy. The arrangement worked well under Diocletian and Maximian and shortly thereafter. Because of the convenience of this many believe that Nero was ultimately responsible for the fire, spawning the legend of him fiddling while Rome burned which is almost certainly untrue. He also kept those forces wintered in Syria, where they became attracted to the young Elagabalus. In 386 Maximus and Victor finally received official recognition by Theodosius but not by Valentinian. Constantius's troops in Eboracum immediately proclaimed his son Constantine the Great as augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. There was almost a war with Vologases III of Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. 3000 BC-1000 BC) The Domus Aurea was a colossal feat of construction that covered a huge space and demanded new methods of construction in order to hold up the golden, jewel-encrusted ceilings. Victories by the emperor Claudius II Gothicus over the next two years drove back the Alamanni and recovered Hispania from the Gallic Empire. During his rule, the Roman Empire reached its greatest extent; it was quite possible for a Roman to travel from Britain to the Persian Gulf without leaving Roman territory. He established new administrative centers in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Antioch, and Trier, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome had been. Diocletian saw that the vast Roman Empire was ungovernable by a single emperor in the face of internal pressures and military threats on two fronts. He attempted to impose stricter military discipline upon the pampered Praetorians. Claudius was a younger brother of Germanicus, and had long been considered a weakling and a fool by the rest of his family. The plan succeeded—Verus remained loyal until his death, while on campaign, in 169. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are the most enduring monument of his rule. Whatever the cause, there was an obvious shift in his reign from this point on, leading his biographers to label him as insane. After three months Cassius was assassinated and Marcus restored the eastern part of the empire. Rome.info » Ancient Rome » History of Rome. B. He had been raised by the Gothic slave Mardonius, a great admirer of ancient Greek philosophy and literature. Maximus controlled the praetorian prefecture of Gaul. No tribune of Rome ever had these powers, and there was no precedent within the Roman system for consolidating the powers of the tribune and the censor into a single position, nor was Augustus ever elected to the office of Censor. The triumvirate ended in 32 BC, torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was forced into exile and Antony, who had allied himself with his lover Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, committed suicide in 30 BC following his defeat at the Battle of Actium (31 BC) by the fleet of Octavian. In the view of the Greek historian Dio Cassius, a contemporary observer, the accession of the emperor Commodus in AD 180 marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron"—a famous comment which has led some historians, notably Edward Gibbon, to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. Then he turned south into Parthian territory in Mesopotamia, taking the cities of Babylon, Seleucia and finally the capital of Ctesiphon in 116, while suppressing the Kitos War, a Jewish uprising across the eastern provinces. Diocletian (r. 284–305) restored stability to the empire, modifying the role of princeps and becoming the first emperor to be addressed by Roman citizens as domine, "master" or "lord" or referred to as dominus noster "our lord". This led to his murder in 96, orchestrated by his enemies in the Senate, Stephanus (the steward of the deceased Julia Flavia), members of the Praetorian Guard and the empress Domitia Longina. Now sole ruler of Rome, Octavian began a full-scale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters.
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