Eight species and a species pair have been recorded in Maryland. The East Coast variant is named the Yellow-shafted Northern Flicker. Popular birds, they are welcome at many back yard feeders and especially enjoy a snack of suet and water. They have long wings, short legs, and very short bills. Removed from the federal endangered species list in 2007 and from the Maryland list of threatened and endangered species in 2010, the species is now fully recovered from shooting and pesticide poisoning and is found year-round all over Maryland and around the Chesapeake. They typically live in open woodland. North America’s most diverse woodpecker genera, Picoides, records nine separate species. Members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted, unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises, and spoonbills. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. Sandhill Crane: This large wading bird has a gray body, white cheeks, chin, and upper throat, and a bright red cap. Other than the lare bill, the black and white striped face, white belly and back feathers look very similar. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized "true petrels", characterized by united nostrils with medium septum and a long outer functional primary. Darters and anhingas are cormorant-like water birds with long necks and long, straight beaks. Some are found in dry open areas, such as the Vermilion Flycatcher and the Pyrrhuloxia, whose habitat are sparse and dry. Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds that includes the avocets and stilts. In the Bohemian and cedar waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax and give the group its name. Two species have been recorded in Maryland. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills. Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colors, their upright posture, and some of their habits; however, they are only distantly related to the penguins and are able to fly. Sparrows are seed eaters, but they also consume small insects. Order: Passeriformes Family: Polioptilidae. Different lengths of legs and bills enable multiple species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. Order: Passeriformes Family: Fringillidae. Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. Order: Procellariiformes Family: Diomedeidae. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. In general they are shy and secretive birds, making them difficult to observe. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. Brown Pelicans are a summer staple along Maryland’s Atlantic coast and in the southern Chesapeake Bay. The large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. It has a dark bill, yellow eyes and black legs and feet. Males also have a red crown. Maryland woodpeckers cover all five native woodpecker genera adding up to seven different species. Terns are in general medium-to-large birds, typically with gray or white plumage, often with black markings on the head.  Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list, except that the common names of families are from the Clements taxonomy because the AOS list does not include them. One species has been recorded in Maryland. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. They tend to have short, rounded wings and to be weak fliers. Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae. Order: Passeriformes Family: Certhiidae. The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are a very common species across the United States because they are adaptable to forests and residential areas alike. Bitterns tend to be shorter-necked and more secretive. Order: Procellariiformes Family: Oceanitidae. In general, these sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or grayish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Barn-owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. Downy Woodpeckers typically have small bills. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. One species has been recorded in Maryland. All are insectivorous. Order: Passeriformes Family: Vireonidae. Order: Passeriformes Family: Icteriidae. Order: Charadriiformes Family: Haematopodidae. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two to the back. But this wasn’t always the case. Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of colored skin on the face. Skimmers are tropical and subtropical species. Two species have been recorded in Maryland. Fourteen species have been recorded in Maryland. Order: Passeriformes Family: Tyrannidae. The current seven species are more or less common around the state. Order: Galliformes Family: Odontophoridae. Three species have been recorded in Maryland. Four species have been recorded in Maryland. Others such as the Purple Finch, Scarlet Tanager and the Cassin's Finch, favour the mixed forests as their homes. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds, which can only go upwards. One species has been recorded in Maryland. In the United States and Canada there are many birds with either fully or partially red heads. Many species are gamebirds or have been domesticated as a food source for humans. Nuthatches are small woodland birds. Traditionally the number was eight species. Photo by Diane F. Evartt. Maryland is known for its State bird, the Baltimore Oriole, but due to ecology and climate, many other species also call Maryland home.. With over 400 different species of birds found in Maryland, the State has become a bird watchers paradise. Cranes are large, long-legged, and long-necked birds. Most species are year-round residents and do not migrate. Most have small feet that are of little use for walking and long, pointed wings. Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under their beak.
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