Finally, the degree of spatial attraction of natural enemies to a location had an almost linear effect on pest suppression. First record of cassava mealybug, http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Entomophaga, 36(4):499-501, Ru Ble, 1986. It soon became an important pest, and methods to control it became a topic of interest. Body length and breadth measurements are, respectively, 0.40-0.75 mm and 0.20-0.30 mm for first instars/crawlers; 1.00-1.10 mm and 0.50-0.65 mm for second instars; 1.10-1.50 mm and 0.50-0.60 mm for third instars; and 1.10-2.6 mm and 0.50-1.40 mm for fourth instars/newly emerged adults (Matile-Ferrero, 1978; Nwanze, 1978). In: Yaninek JS, Herren HR, eds. It is commonly called the cassava mealybug because it feeds on cassava. Entomophaga, 33(4):453-465, Biassangama A, Ru B le, Iziquel Y, Kiyindou A, Bimangou AS, 1989. 'Cassava trees' used to rear parasitoids. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. : Encyrtidae) into the Congo in 1982. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2001.tb00024.x. Revista de Agricultura Piracicaba, 74(2): 127-136, Ru B le, Fabres G, 1987. Coccoidea Pseudococcidae) in Gabon. Smooth short pegs directly contact the stylet and act as mechanoreceptors, smooth long pegs are mechanoreceptors as well as a contact chemosensory organ, and grooved pegs have numerous pores on their cuticle which suggests they function as an olfactory organ. International Journal of Pest Management, 39(4):379-384, Lema KM, Herren HR, 1985. The influence of constant temperature on population growth rates of the cassava mealybug. They also distort the stems, dry up the leaves, and eventually, if the attack is particularly severe, cause considerable defoliation. Matile-Ferrero D, 1978. Body segments bear very short lateral and caudal white wax filaments in the form of swellings that produce a toothed appearance to the body outline. , Contrary to insecticide use, biological pest control provided a self-sustaining, cost-effective and environmentally-sound solution for mealybug suppression across the African cassava belt. Other examples abound in a variety of habitats. Pseudococcidae) in southern Nigeria. Wallingford, UK; CABI Publishing, 45-59, Neuenschwander P, Ajuonu O, 1995. Though the pathogen could be applied in a targeted fashion to only the pest trees by formulating it into a mycoherbicide spray, the fungus subsequently produces basidiospores that could disperse and infect nontarget plants, necessitating an analysis of risk. The parasitoid appears unable to develop properly on mealybug infesting cassava grown on extremely poor, sandy soils characteristic of the SADC region, however. Tropical Pest Management, 28(1):27-32, Nwanze KF, Leuschner K, Ezumah HC, 1979. Modeling helped explain why Epidinocarsis diversicornis (Howard) failed to establish while the related species Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) established and became the most important mortality factor in the pest’s population (at least during the dry season). Dewi Sartiami, Watson GW, Mohamad Roff MN, Hanifah YM, Idris AB, 2015. (1987), who also provided a diagram of the trophic interactions of this fauna (Fig. Technology for automated aerial release of natural enemies of the cassava mealybug and cassava green mite. 2000. Phenacoccus manihoti was first discovered in Zaire in 1973 and spread into almost all other cassava-growing areas of the continent (Fig. In: Clausen CP, ed. accumulated pyrrolizidine alkaloids from its host Nyctemera annulata Boisduval, which in turn were sequestered from the plant food, Senecio spathulatus A. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128143834000098, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065352714000025, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123847195002513, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122573057500692, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080454054006637, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780122573057500771, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016953471630218X, Food Crop Production by Smallholder Farmers in Southern Africa, IITA, 2010a; Neuenschwander, 1994; Yaninek, Onzo, & Ojo, 1993, Introduced Species, Impacts and Distribution of, Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), Nutrition of Entomophagous Insects and Other Arthropods, Enhancement of Biological Control in Annual Agricultural Environments, A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity, William J. Sutherland, ... Nancy Ockendon, in, Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security, No agents released, existing populations are enhanced, Targets usually arthropods (some microbes), Immediacy of response, low need to plan ahead, Control not confined to original release location, Poor immediacy of response, need to plan ahead, Why many releases fail to establish or bring target under adequate control, Which aspects of agent biology most important for success, Level of control expected under differing situations. Annales de la Socie^acute~te^acute~ Entomologique de France, 35(1):91-121; 22 ref, Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC, 1992. (4) Ignorance about mechanisms of pest impact and biological control has sometimes led to false expectations: although the cassava mealybug produces noticeable symptoms at the end of the dry season at levels too low to measurably affect yield, memory of the really devastating cassava mealybug infestations encountered before the release of A. lopezi is fading (Herren & Neuenschwander, 1991). Ibadania Niger, 20-28, Nwanze KF, 1982. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30(4):706-721, Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P, Schulthess F, Herren HR, Baumgprtner JU, Wermelinger B, Lohr B, Ellis CK, 1988. Introductions and dispersal of Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae), an exotic parasitoid of the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom., Pseudococcidae), in Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Herbivorous insects have been employed in biological control projects against many introduced aquatic and terrestrial weeds. The mealybug's body segmentation is apparent. The major risk associated with this form of biological control is that the introduction of an exotic species into a new geographical location will damage other, nontarget species. Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); eggs/woolly ovisacs. [Distribution map]. Brazzaville, ORSTOM, 5 pp, Fabres G, 1981.  If the plant becomes stressed during dry season it is even more susceptible to infestation. Losses in eastern US forests to the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) were estimated at $764 million in one year alone (US Congress Office of Technology Assessment, 1993). Hennessey, R. D, et al,.  Within 15 years of its discovery, it had invaded most of West and Central Africa and was spreading to the East. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Nominal costs of the biological control programme 1979-2013 were estimated at US$ 34.2 million, with the peak annual cost of the programme coming to US$ 5.2 million in 1985. In: Insect Science and its Application, 8 (4-6) 899-903.  When it infests cassava it deteriorates the tissue mineral and nutrient contents. 480, 137-170, Ben-Dov Y, 1994. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 77(2):177-189, Neuenschwander P, Herren HR, 1988. A useful key to identify P. manihoti may be found in Williams and Granara de Willink (1992). (Hom., Pseudococcidae). 257-283. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France, 114(1):43-48, Foldi I, 1988. The entomophthoraceous fungus, Neozygites fumosa parasitizing the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom. Sunil Joshi, Pai S G, Deepthy K B, Ballal C R, Watson G W, 2020. Relationships between cassava root yields and crop infestations by the mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti. Maximum consumption rate and fecundity were less important while the effect of longevity depended on its interaction with other factors.
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