existentialism philosophy of education

Man is nothing other than what he makes himself. 0000006469 00000 n Privacy Policy 8. X^���?����{���`�rQ/��! Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out /  Thus, existentialists believe that reality is a state of becoming and individual alone creates values. Socratic Method encourages free and fearless questioning and is relied upon dialogue and direct communication. The leading exponents of existentialism are Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), a Danish philosopher, Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers, German philosophers, Gabriel Marcel and Jean u1 Sartre, French philosophers and a host of others like Schelling, Nietsche, Pascal, Hussrell, etc.. Existentialism puts emphases upon existence of man first-the inner, immediate experience f self- awareness. Existentialismis a modern philosophy emerging (existence-philosophy) from the 19thcentury, inspired by such thinkers as Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Freedom is essential, for it makes human existence possible. For the existential philosophers, man in the universe is not complete. The two German words ‘exsistet’ justifies the etymological meaning of existentialism which conveys ‘stand out’ or emerges out of problems of life of man. What a thing is we call its essence; that it is we call its existence. At the metaphysical level, there are four* broad philosophical schools of thought that apply to education today. For Pragmatists, teaching methods focus on hands-on problem solving, experimenting, and projects, often having students work in groups. Existentialism rejects the existence of any source of objective, authoritative truth about metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. According to existentialists, a good education emphasizes individuality. Attaching importance to subjective in contrast to objectivity, existentialists hold that education should make a man subjective and make him aware of his individuality or ‘self—he is able to define himself. It impels man to be aware of his or her existence in its essential freedom. Existentialism in education is significant in a number of ways. Discussion and interaction between students helps each understand their own values within the social context. According to existentialists, man is not only free but he is condemned to be free. He must make his children think about the problems of life. Sӧren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) Danish philosopher born in Copenhagen The father of existentialism Human existence is always individual in character, never social. �����-�o)��Z*_�}p�D����:;� V�9{�ƴX���Gb\#%�Ŗ��������q���9$�����ؓ=�Z��ɜsT�e����-��pU��S6���9(q�Qg�=w���,.�Po�ٺ%j����\s����;5�8��D��:����M&�ƚ���$���}o�G%����DtCb���JG�2H�#���\L��{��,.���MFJ��Eo�ŎSQ��ԏ#c4���ՈO��x\��V�x�?��ݤ ¡�ִ��/��Zg�A�%f���@�8_��ȶ�G�Co�"�A�����Q�|=���H5ǰ����i����ܿE�Ơ�#}'dn. Idealism is a philosophical approach that has as its central tenet that ideas are the only true reality, the only thing worth knowing. 0000011050 00000 n The Existentialist Curriculum Composed of fine arts, drama, creative expression, literature, and philosophy. 0000003120 00000 n 3. Freedom, choice, and responsibility form a complex interrelation in existentialist philosophy. He must learn to love death. Character is developed through imitating examples and heroes. The exercise of rational thought is viewed as the ultimate purpose for humankind. In this attempt, first of all, a discussion about the ways in which the relationship between existentialism and education has been understood. Nature of existentialist thought and manner. Existentialism rejects the existence of any source of objective, authoritative truth Curriculum should help the individual in the satisfaction of immediate social, political, economic and a host of other problems and ultimate needs. Existentialists, thus, remark that man is the only being in the universe who knows that sometime he will die. ‘Knowing’ in the sense of knowing oneself, social relationships and biological development are all parts of this becoming. In it, there is the chance of losing the individuality and free choice. Reacting against what he perceived as too much of a focus on the immediacy of the physical and sensory world, Plato described a utopian society in which "education to body and soul all the beauty and perfection of which they are capable" as an ideal. Concepts or terminology like “Being”, “Meaning”, ‘Existence”, “Person” are not very clear. 0000051603 00000 n The core of this philosophy is man vis-a-vis modern advanced technological society beset with a plethora of problems and crises. Kneller writes, “Education for happiness is a dangerous doctrine because there can be no happiness without pain and no ecstasy without suffering.” Therefore, existentialists prefer education which throws open to children all human suffering, misery, anguish and dreadful responsibilities of adult life. As such, action enables man to live successfully and adequately in the society. Concern and respect for the individual should be a feature of the school. Existentialism has come into strong and pungent criticism from a number of philosophers. According to existentialists, education, in a broader sense, is that which helps an individual to realize the best, that he is capable of and the facticity of his existence, to face the categories of this facticity or contingency-dread, anguish, anxiety and fear resolutely and courageously and ultimately prepare him to meet death with pleasure. Education must make pupil aware of the infinite possibilities of his freedom, which is authentic and the responsibilities, he must bear in his life. 0000001884 00000 n 0000005045 00000 n School should feature self-government, participation of pupils in planning process and the encouragement of a free atmosphere. The place or teacher in existentialist’ home is very delicate. Humanities help man to keep close to himself. According to existentialists, fundamental problem of philosophy is Valuation and choice. Existentialism in education The philosophy of existentialism has not displayed any particular interest in education. Unlike the more austere European approaches where the universe is seen as meaningless when faced with the certainty of the end of existence, American existentialists have focused more on human potential and the quest for personal meaning. Plagiarism Prevention 4. Existentialist education recognizes the role of both culture and individual nature in identity formation. Truth or value is revealed in the subjective experience of living. Each will be explained shortly. Therefore, man, instead of waiting to realize what is given to him, should conceive himself as a free, responsible, spring and striving becoming. 0000006991 00000 n Rather than passing down organized bodies of knowledge to new learners, Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry. 0000006811 00000 n What might be your image metaphor for each of these world or metaphysical philosophies. Ruggeiro in his edited master-piece, “Existentialism” comments, “I believe that never before in the history of thought has such a radical nihilism been expressed, and what is more, with such impassivity and detachment. The pupil must develop a commitment to these values and act for them. 0000001775 00000 n Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. He must make the child feel that he has conquered death. Just as its namesake sprang from a strong rejection of traditional philosophy, educational existentialism sprang from a strong rejection of the traditional, essentialist approach to education. In conclusion, if can be safely concluded that existentialism is a form of philosophy which stands supreme among the constellation of philosophies. Criticizing the prevailing concepts of education, as education for complete living, for life, for freedom and happiness, existentialists present a new concept of education-education for death. Existentialism, any of various philosophies, most influential in continental Europe from about 1930 to the mid-20th century, that have in common an interpretation of human existence in the world that stresses its concreteness and its problematic character.. He is a free agent capable of shaping his own life and choosing his own destiny. Therefore, his existence throughout life is permeated by dread, anxiety and fear. For pragmatists, only those things that are experienced or observed are real. In the present century marked by excessive formalism and absolute individualism, this philosophy stands as if it is a saviour of human beings to show human beings a path of real existence. Such educators want the educational experience to focus on creating opportunities for self-direction and self actualization. This area of philosophy focuses on the nature of reality. Karl Jaspers says, “Science is a necessary pre-condition of philosophy.” Science is a springboard for jumping into spiritual perfection or self-excellence. It believes that people find truth through reasoning and revelation and that goodness is found in rational thinking. To understand truth, one must pursue knowledge and identify with the Absolute Mind. The focus is on the body/objects. Basics of Existentialism 3.

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