So men with beards and women with veils who appeared to be Muslims were singled out for abuse and humiliation. The difference between legal age of consent for homosexual sex and heterosexual sex. There are no organizations listed in Gujarat. For instance the Gujarat Samachar newspaper of 15th March 2002 exhibited a photograph of a woman karsevak, sword in hand while travelling from Jharkhand to Ayodhya as symbolic of the militarized Hindu woman. Watch Queue Queue. Civil society in Gujarat as indeed civil society in all of India have become polarized and sharply contested. The politics of gender were integral in the making of a Hindutva militia that led and carried out the carnage throughout Gujarat State against the minority community. The threat of multiple fundamentalisms has torn apart countries like Lebanon where fundamentalists forces fought each other. They used symbols of past greatness and blamed minorities for historical wrongs seeking revenge for the past in the present. 'The man as warrior' in them was constantly being roused. The women's fact finding panel showed, that Maya Kodnani, BJP MLA from Naroda Patia who has been named in the First Information Report as an accused who participated and incited violence in the worst hit areas of Naroda Patia, justified the incidents as 'natural' anger against Muslims. This is not a new phenomenon; it's a case of history repeating itself. Cynthia Enloe has examined the case of Bosnian Serb men in the militia and how they were simultaneously masculinized, militarized and ethnically politicized. For women in India, this representation continues to impact on them long after the nationalist project. They abused them in the filthiest language, shouting at them for not having the guts to open fire at the other community." The movement for women's change gets deflected, as notions of women's self-service and sacrifice attempt to come back. The Indian progressive women's movement is a critical part of the later. The metaphor of mother/woman as nation/religious/ethnic symbol was closely linked to this distinction. All others were thus excluded from citizenship. These same gender-linked suffixes are used to make adjectives, verbs, and even adverbs agree with nouns in Gujarati sentences. De-sensitization to violence and a dehumanization of the potential opponent are core processes in this project. We cite just some instances to show this. These groups organized youth on para- military lines and were based on an ideology of cultural superiority that excluded other religious and ethnic minorities from the concept of the nation. The ability for same-sex couples to legally adopt a child. In this instance, Geetaben became victim but also martyr. People spoke of "borders" in localities separating the two communities. The notion of gender in cultural terms gets redefined. These statements reflect the basic tenets of Sangh philosophy. In fact after one such camp, women trained in these skills stated that they now "felt empowered". Gender tension was an underlying theme in almost all pamphlets whether they addressed commerce, building the Ram temple or security. This represented for them an aspiration for power. The question is: Did the BJP women MLA along with the rest of the Parivar comprehend mass rape in terms of everyday violence that is considered legitimate? Fences between the houses and streets were put up to signify these 'borders'. I salute you Geetaben, from the bottom of my heart for your one brief moment of defiance.". The main place for women in a militarized institution is defined within the confines of gender and women are fitted into service and support roles. The episodes in the Gujarat carnage reflect this use of the gendered metaphor. Rumours of Muslims raping Hindu women preceded many instances of rape and violence in minority areas like Naroda Patia. RSS leaders cited this to show the spontaneity and 'mass character' of the movement. Women and Climate Change; Research; GRC/SRCW - Staff; Home / Advocacy / Prevention of Domestic Violence; Prevention of Domestic Violence . The attempts and struggles of the women's movements that are engaged in making real changes for women get a set back as this retrogressive ideology which prevents real change in the name of 'honouring' women as nation/goddess. One which talked of Hindutava and said that only those who regard India as both their pitribhu (fatherland) and punyabhu (holy land) can be Hindus. She said housewives helped the mobs by giving them gas cylinders from their homes, which could be used to burn Muslim homes. A deferral period refers to a waiting time before a man can donate after having sex. In 'protecting their women' from the enemy Hindu men are being asked not only to safeguard their own women as property but also to kill/humiliate/rape the 'other'. Godhra being an ISI (Pakistani) plot. The militarization of society is a gendered process. In Gujarat, since the BJP is in power they have been able to use state resources for this agenda. It was men like these who decided to form armed militia rather than trust civilian parties or the weak state. This was central to the construction of masculinity linked to the warrior image. Given the systematic spread of Sangh ideology in Gujarat, the enemy had been identified, the threat perception made clear, the response aroused. This process undoubtedly assisted in militarizing ethnic nationalism and in the creation of the Serb militia that carried out the ethnic cleansing, genocide and mass rape. They called upon Hindu men to unite and pay back the Muslims wrongs on the Hindu (from the Lodhis to the Mughals). They proved their 'sameness' and worth to their men. The other part of this theory can be explained in his words: "Our real national regeneration should start with the moulding of man, instilling in him the strength to overcome human frailties and stand him up as a real symbol of Hindu manhood." Before the Gujarat carnage and during it there has been a continuous subtext that points to the control of women'' sexuality and the simultaneous assertion of masculinity. The 'enemy other' would be best hurt if 'their women' were dishonoured through bodily abuse. These organizations have a large cadre in Gujarat and follow a similar trajectory with their own specific variations. The most famous case was that of Geetaben, married to a Muslim. This tactic distracted the para-military forces while the boys ran away home. Newspapers like Gujarat Samachar printed mythical stories of Muslims raping Hindu women. They placed women lower in their hierarchic organizations with the specific role as supporters and reproducers for the nation. Others who opposed this genocide celebrated her as heroine, as symbol of communal amity and resistance: "In these troubled times when heroes are scarce and villains abound, Geetaben deserves to be worshipped. Watch Queue Queue The paper said on March 1st, that two Hindu women had been abducted from the train by Muslims, gang raped, mutilated with their breasts cut off, then killed with their bodies dumped near Kalol near Godhra. Under the cover of religiosity, the Hindutava fundamentalists have justified discrimination and injustice on the basis of religion and other differences. The fact finding team was appalled by her casual attitude towards sexual crimes against women. Through participation in violence, conflict and war women of the Hindu right showed evidence of their equality with men. The Sangh Parivar and the communal press constructed a myth of rape and Hindu hurt by a community linked to an external enemy. On the one side, is a pseudo-Hinduism under the guise of a Hindutva that threatens to devour not only the everything the Indian nation and constitution stand for, but also civil society and then Hinduism itself. In an interview with the team, the inter-relationship between rape and identity becomes clear. Prohibition of discrimination based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity when applying for housing or discrimination by landlords / property owners. They have used temples and religious congregations, (amongst other things) to increase their political power by organizing young men and women in the guise of reforming society into a Hindutva 'Ram Rajya' which is in constant opposition to Islam. Keeping alive these theories, Union Home Minister L.K.Advani described the Godhra incident as a "pre-meditated" attack. Or was it more than that? The threat perception and linking the Muslims within the country with the enemy Pakistan outside, is part of a long grass root campaign, which has been sharpened in Gujarat.
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