© 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. This forum highlighted the relevance of Bioinformatics for the identification of bacterial and fungal genes that attack different crops and to help define strategies to fight them. !"$%%%&'()*%+',&-%.$/% 01. To better address the problems implied by each of these different areas, Bioinformatics resorts to complex combinations of mathematical, information technological, computational, networking and hardware tools, resulting in novel techniques, methods, algorithms and specialized databases. The orientation of these training events towards Bioinformatics has resulted in a translation of common trends in research in the Life Sciences to actual practice in the clinical fields. To accomplish these professional qualifications, it is imperative to have stable Bioinformatics academic programs available, and that these programs can quickly adapt to new needs to deliver the education and training required on demand [2–4]. This help can take various forms, such as facilitating international exchanges, collaboration, education and development in all topics related to its scope. To strengthen this, the company has built a specialized Bioinformatics laboratory with virtual equipment for training in diverse Bioinformatics topics (Galaxy, Bioconductor, Taverna and EMBOSS). To address this problem, the University of Costa Rica’s Medical School, a regional leader in Bioinformatics in Central America, has been conducting a series of Bioinformatics workshops, seminars and courses, leading to the creation of the region’s first Bioinformatics Master’s Degree. Central America, being at the continent’s central region, is also considered a sub-continent that connects North America with South America. The Congress was accompanied by satellite education activities and a general course on Bioinformatics delivered by members of the Genetics Department of Cambridge University. Each of these disciplines will yield large amounts of completely different data as a result of their analyses and, given their size, the results must necessarily be analyzed with the help of computers, using bioinformatic and biocomputing tools. The main purpose of the course was the analysis of a simplified microarray (created from a microscope slide using as genomic model Arabidopsis thaliana) to study gene expression during the photosynthesis process. ; the rest of America like Argentina, Colombia, Chile, USA (Florida, Virginia) and Europe, most notably University of Cambridge in UK and various universities and research institutions in Spain. The University of Costa Rica’s Pharmacy Faculty organized its first Bioinformatics workshop in 2010. Ten students from Pharmacy and Biotechnology participated in the course. We can take as an example the application to the study of cancer by using Structural Biology, to better characterize relevant proteins and their interactions, and Bioinformatics for the analysis of cancer gene expression in different clinical setups using microarrays. Understanding the great variety of coloration patterns observed in animals, especially regarding the mechanisms that generate and maintain this phenotypic diversity, remains one of the great challe, Visa delinear estratégias para conservação de espécies ameaçadas, a partir do levantamento de novos dados acerca da biodiversidade de mamíferos e o desenvolvimento de novas técnicas/processos de mo. La Bioinformática y su importancia en Costa Rica. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. However, currently there is no clear consensus about the use of these bioinformatics tools within standard clinical practice in hospitals . As the interest in Bioinformatics in the region has been spreading to more institutions and over more different areas, it became increasingly more appealing to bring together all practitioners in the field to share their various interests and points of view, to become aware of each others work and to realize the full potential and breadth of Bioinformatics in the region. From 2009 to 2012, the University of Costa Rica’s Medical School has participated in events of international relevance either by itself or in representation of the Central American region. Progressively, more institutions are starting to deliver courses, either of general scope or specialized to their own interest. It also called attention to the growing role of integrative nanobiotechnology, which is allowing the creation of new fertilizers and herbicides, in situ monitoring of environmental factors and plant growth as well as prolongation of food’s useful life, among other applications . In Costa Rica, there is not yet a strong market need for Bioinformatics, except for some indirect opportunities like outsourcing requests from foreign companies (mainly pharmaceutical companies from the West of USA) to local IT companies. The first GENECHIP National Workshop took place in 2008, with the running line ‘Genomic, Gene Identification and Bioinformatics’. Since 2004, a translational education corpus has been in development with the purpose of helping the Central American clinical specialists to get an up-to-date education of Bioinformatics technologies, methods and strategies that may enable them to carry out genomic studies in areas such as monogenic and complex diseases and in Pharmacogenomics. Another difference is in the application of their work; Bioinformatics data is targeted toward fellow bio scientists while Medical informatics data is geared toward use by healthcare professionals. The cluster runs on the Rocks Mamba Server 6.2 operating system (stable version of Red Hat Linux for servers). At the undergraduate level, there are several Bioinformatics courses in Costa Rica on careers such as Biotechnology, Biology, Medicine, Odontology, Pharmacy and Agronomy. Understanding the biogeography and adaptive relevance of polymorphic phenotypes in mammals, Aplicação de modelagem e distruibuição geográfica de espécies para estudos biogeográficos de mamíferos, Merging Perspectives on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. The University of Costa Rica’s Clodomiro Picado Institute (ICP) is a research center focused on the study of snake venom and antidotes. To summarize, there is still a lot to be done, and success will depend on maintenance and strengthening of international collaborations, but most of all, on the attitude and effort of all the players involved, who will be required to invest hard work, responsibility and a high level of compromise if they want to succeed in bringing the region up to speed to match the highest international standards. One of the main causes for this absence has been the lack of continuous and stable bioinformatics education that would allow various professionals to learn how to interpret the various laboratory analyses available using the full panel of computer-based tools offered by Bioinformatics. The initial steps in the development of a Bioinformatics community profited considerably from the establishment of cooperations with mature groups overseas, and as local groups have been reaching maturity, it is natural that they start reaching overseas as well. Both of them are so closely related that the distinction between them is often blurred and that the two of them are usually combined in common practice by most professionals. One of the main focus areas of the company is regional Bioinformatics training and education. The first Bioinformatics infrastructure of the Central American region was installed at the Informatics Center of the University of Costa Rica, promoted by University of Costa Rica Medical School.
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